Several archaeologic finds from the Holy Land show that the shafts were made of cypress wood, cedar or pine. Sometimes theese were painted with alternating blue and red bands and „eye” forms (found at Montfort).
Eagle and vulture feathers were considered the best.
The arrowheads are really important to Mamluk reenactors, because they determine the weight of the arrow. The Mamluk archery test defines the trajectory but not the type of arrow. Therefore I guess that the test had to be completed with the regular war arrows. And what is like a regular Mamluk arrow?
According to Crusader Archaeology the typical arrowhead is small, triangular, square in section with an elongated tang. Average length is 4-5 cm, average weight is 15 gramms. You can find some pictures in the „Specimens” menu.
This form was the most widespread. For example at the castle of Arsuf 1243 arrowheads were found. 1238 were the above mentioned triangular form, and only 5 were flat, kite-shaped.